- Psilocybe mushrooms
- Conocybe mushrooms
- Copelandia/Panaeolus mushrooms
- Galerina msuhrooms
- Inocybe mushrooms
- Mycena mushrooms
There are thousands of mushrooms species on the planet but the Psilocybin mushrooms have gained popularity for their hallucinogenic properties. But did you know there are other types of magic mushrooms that can produce psychedelic effects too?
This article lists the different types of hallucinogenic mushrooms, their locations, effects, and identifying features. This should give you all the information you need before going on a magic mushroom hunt outdoors.
Psilocybe is a type of mushrooms that are best-known for their psychoactive compounds: psilocybin, psilocin and baeocystin.
The fruit bodies of mushrooms that belong to this genus are typically small, characterized by their small to medium caps, brown to yellow coloration, and a spore-print that ranges from lilac brown to dark purple brown. This type of magic mushrooms also tend to bruise when handled. All species belonging to this genus grow on decaying organic matter.
Psychedelic effects occur 20-60 minutes after ingesting Psilocybe cubensis and these effects can last from 4-10 hours. These effects include visual distortion, vivid enhancement of colors, and the animation of organic shapes.
20-60 minutes after ingesting Psilocybe cubensis, one can expect effects which can last from 4-10 hours. These effects include visual distortions, vivid enhancement of colors, and the animation of organic shapes.
Some of the representative species from the Psilocybe genus are:
- Psilocybe cubensis. This species is arguably the most popular of all the Psilocybes and is also known as shrooms or cubes. This variety grows all over the world. It grows on cow dung in the United States Gulf Coast, Mexico, Central America, South America, West Indies, Thailand, Cambodia, India, and Australia.
They can be easily identified because of their conic to convex caps which can grow anywhere between 2 to 8cm in diameter. Their reddish-cinnamon brown hue turns golden brown with age, which also led to its street name, gold caps.
It contains psilocybin, psilocin and baeocystin. Due to factors such as age, the amounts of each substance in this species varies.
- Psilocybe cyanescens. This variety is also known as wavy caps because of their caps that become distinctly wavy when they mature. The caps are quite unique within its genus for its pale buff and yellowish hue. Their blackish brown spores are also quite distinctive.
In the United States, P. cyanescens grows in the Pacific Northwest south of the San Francisco Bay area. It also grows in Western and Central Europe, Australia, west Asia, Western Europe, Central Europe, and New Zealand.
They grow on woodchips along the perimeter of urban areas and mulched bed. Due to the fruiting requirements of this species, growing them indoors is difficult.
- Psilocybe semilanceata. This fungus grows in grasslands and especially in wet areas. Unlike the P. cubensis though, it doesn’t grow on dung. It feeds off decaying grass roots and is located in 17 countries in the Northern Hemisphere particularly in North America, Canada, Russia, Switzerland, Poland, and the Netherlands.
- semilanceata are also known as liberty caps. Their caps are 5-25mm in diameter and varies in shape from sharply conical to bell-shaped, with a prominent tip that looks like a nipple.
- Psilocybe azurescens. This is the most potent psilocybin-containing mushrooms with psilocybin levels of 1.78%. People new to magic mushrooms should avoid eating more than an eighth of P. azurescens for the first time. This species is harrowingly strong and twice as potent as the P. cubensis.
The cap is 30-100mm in diameter which flattens with age. They’re located in coastal dune grasses along a small area of the United States’ West Coast. Germany also hosts a few wild specimens.
Most conocybe mushrooms types have long, thin, fragile stems and grow in fertile grasslands on dead moss, dead grass, sand dunes, decayed wood, and dung. Conocybe species are called cone heads because of their conical or bell-shaped caps.
The conocybe genus contains at least 243 species of mushrooms, 4 of which contain the hallucinogenic compounds psilocin and psilocybin.
- Conocybe kehneriana. Not much is known about this fungus but this species grows in Norway and Argentina. Its physical appearance is similar to the generic features of those belonging to the Conocybe genus.
- Conocybe siligineoides. Also known as cone caps, this fungi is thin, small, and only about 3 inches in height. Its cap is bell-shaped with a reddish-orange hue. When spores form, it obtains a rusty color.
It’s almost never seen in other parts of the world. All specimens were collected in Mexico where it was originally reported as a sacred mushroom used in healing and various rituals. They are ingested by locals either fresh or in the form of tea.
- Conocybe cyanopus/Pholiotina cyanopus. This fungus is currently assigned to the genus Pholiotina but was assigned to the Conocybe genus in 1935. It is a small mushroom that grows on decaying matter with a conic to broadly convex cap which is smooth and colored cinnamon brown.
It’s relatively small, usually less than 25mm across, with striped margins. The stem is smooth and fragile with whitish areas at the bottom and brownish at the top. Its spores are also cinnamon brown. Most mycologists advise against collecting and eating this species because of its strong resemblance to poisonous varieties.
Another characteristic of this species is its capability to form sclerotia, a dormant form of the fruiting body which grows underground. Sclerotia are more commonly known as truffles.
This species grows in lawns, fields, and grassy areas in the temperate regions of North America, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and the United States.
- Conocybe smithii/Pholiotina smithii. Similar to the species mentioned above, it’s now re-classified into the Pholiotina genus.
The P. smithii is found in North America and often grows in bogs, ditches and swampy areas, commonly in sphagnum moss. It’s also found along river banks and in lawns. It is known to occur in Canada, Oregon, Wisconsin, Washington, and on ancient man-made earthen mounds in Northern Michigan. It fruits in early summer.
- smithii’s caps are 0.3-1cm across with a conic to convex shape which expands to nearly flat with age. Its cinnamon-brown color is consistent with the hue of its spores.
Despite its mild hallucinogenic effects, experts strongly advise against using them for psychedelic experiments because of their similarities with poisonous mushrooms.
The Copelandia is a genus composed of 12 mushroom species, all of which are known to contain the hallucinogens psilocin and psilocybin. American and European mycologists have agreed to categorize all members of the Copelandia genus under Panaeolus.
Mushrooms belonging to the Panaeolus genus are white to gray or tan, with long, thin fragile stems. They’re scattered in the tropics and neotropics of both hemisphere, growing in grasslands, on dead moss, dead grass, sand dunes, decayed wood, and dung. Because of their psilocin content, they tend to bruise and turn blue.
Representative species under the Panaeolus genus are:
- Panaeolus cambodginiensis. This is a potent hallucinogenic mushroom that contains psilocybin and psilocin. Its cap is less than 23mm across, with a convex shape. The cap surface is smooth with gray to black gills. This is consistent with its spores which are also black.
It grows on dung of water buffalo and was first seen in Cambodia but proved to be a widespread species across the Asian subtropics and Hawaii.
- Panaeolus cyanescens. This is another psilocybin mushroom belonging to the aforementioned genus. Its cap is 1.5-4cm across with an incurved margin when young. Its hue is yellowish to brownish but it turns green or blue when damaged. Its spores are jet black.
It’s also a dung-inhabiting species which frequents pastures in Africa, Australia, parts of Asia, North America, and South America.
- Panaeolus bisporus. Physically, this species doesn’t look any different from the P. cambodginiensis. It can only be differentiated under a microscope.
This little brown mushroom grows on dung and has black spores. It’s found in Hawaii, Southern California, North Africa, Spain, and Switzerland.
- Panaeolus tropicalis. This is among the most potent psilocybin mushrooms under the Copelandia/Panaeolus genus. The cap is clay-colored, 1.5-2.5cm wide and is hemispheric to convex. The stem is 5-12cm long and turns blackish towards the base. It becomes blue when bruised.
- tropicalis also grows on dung and is most often found in Hawaii, Central Africa, and Cambodia. It can also be seen growing in Mexico, Tanzania, the Philippines, Florida, and Japan
Gelrina is a genus of small, brown-spored mushrooms type that grow on decaying matter with over 300 species all over the world – from the far north to remote Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean. Species belonging to this genus are typically small with a slender and brittle stem. They grow on wood and mossy habitats.
Among the many species of mushrooms under the Galerina genus, only one is known to produce psilocybin. Most species under this group are actually toxic.
- Galerina steglichii. This is extremely rare among the types of magic mushrooms. They’re reported only once in Germany. They grow singularly or in few numbers.
These mushrooms can be identified by their brown caps which are 2-3mm in diameter. Their spores leave rusty to orange brown prints.
Inocybe is a genus of mushroom-forming fungi. Members of Inocybe live in the roots of vascular host plants. Because of this, there are among the most highly adaptable types of mushrooms.
Typical mushrooms under this genus are brown although some species are lilac. Their caps are usually small and conical, though flattening with age. Many caps have a distinctive odor, described as spermatic or musty.
4 species under this genus are known to produce psychedelic effects.
- Inocybe aeruginascens. The first specimen of this species were documented on June 15, 1965. They’re also widely distributed in temperate areas and has been reported in moist, sandy soils in central Europe and western North America.
These mushrooms are small with a conic to convex cap which is usually less than 5cm in diameter. The cap color varies from buff to light yellow brown, usually with greenish stains which disappear when the mushrooms dries. The spores are smooth and form a clay brown print.
They contain the psychoactive substances psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin, as well as a newly-discovered substance which is named aeruginascin. So far, I. aeruginescens is the only type of magic mushrooms which produces aeruginascin.
- Inocybe coelestium. This type of magic mushroom is widely distributed in Europe. Its name “coelestium” means “celestials,” the inhabitants of Mount Olympus. This is a nod to its hallucinogenic properties.
Its physical characteristics are generally similar to most species under the Inocybe genus.
- Inocybe haemacta. This species holds a strong resemblance to the I. aeruginescens. This magic mushroom grows in coastal areas across Europe.
- Inocybe tricolor. This member of the Inocybe genus is distributed in temperate forests. It also contains both psilocybin and psilocin. It’s found in Norway in central Europe. The cap is brick red to chocolate brown, lighter towards the margin. It’s usually 4cm across and produces spores which are ochre to tan brown.
This large genus is composed of mushrooms which also grow on decaying matter. They are rarely more than a few centimeters wide and are characterized by a white spore print, a small bell-shaped cap, and a thin fragile stem. Most mushrooms under the Mycena genus are gray or brown.
They are difficult to distinguish from other mushroom types and need to be viewed under a microscope to differentiate. Some species are edible while other contain toxins. One of them contains the hallucinogen psilocybin.
- Mycena cyanorrhiza. This is a small, white mushroom with a blue base. It’s seen growing in forests on wood and leaves a white spore print.
It’s reported to contain psilocybin but this is probably a false positive. Its edibility is disputable and it doesn’t have any historical record of being used as a hallucinogen.
Pluteus mushrooms. This genus contains over 300 species that grow on wood or wood remains. They leave pink spore prints and gills that are free from the stem.
Some of these mushrooms are edible though most people rate their taste and consistency as average. Several members of this genus bruise blue when handled, a sign that they contain psilocybin.
- Pluteus brunneidiscus. brunneidiscus is a species of agaric fungus first found in Spain and the United States. It grows solitarily on the wood of trees with broad leaves from June to November.
- Pluteus salicinus. This European psychedelic mushroom grows on wood. It can be identified by its silver-gray caps which span 2-8cm in diameter. It also has tiny scales near the center, darker at the margin, and is slightly translucent when moist. The stem is 3-5cm long which is slightly swollen at the base.
The concentration of psilocybin and psilocin in dried samples of P. salicinus are reported within the range of 0.21-0.35% and 0.011 and 0.05% respectively.
There are different types of magic mushrooms to suit anyone’s taste. If you want to go on a psychedelic journey, you can order magic truffles online and choose among the different types of magic truffles available!
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